Bird's-Eye View of Teutonic Grammar 301 SOLLEN—(contd ) DURFEN—(contd ) was soil ich tun^ & hat mcht kommen durfen what shall I do ? xhe was not allowed to come sottte er vielleicht krank sein? darf ich Sie um em Streichholz can he be ilP bitten* may I ask for a match? DURFEN (i) penrnssion(moy>be allowed to) (11) possibility (may) darf (kanri) ich nun gehen* das durfte mcht schzver sem may I go now> that shouldn't be difficult The beginner who is not forewarned may be confused about one use of Iassen9 which is equivalent to let in the sense have a thing done After this an infinitive is used where we should put a participle This construction is common, e g Er lasst sich ein Haus bauen = he is having a house built Er hat sich em Haus bauen lassen = he has had a house built Er wird sich em Haus bauen lassen == he will have a house built Er hat mich warten lassen — he ha* kept me waiting Broadly speaking we can always translate the dictionary form which also does service for the present tense or the imperanve in English by the German infinitive when it is accompanied by a helper or preceded by to. The latter is equivalent to zu, which does not precede the verb if it is accompanied by a helper We omit the preposition after two verbs (see, hear} other than helpers listed on p 152, and sometimes after a thud (help) Germans leave out zu after horen> sehen, and helfen^ and also do so after a few others Of these lernen (learn) and lehren (teach) are most common. I saw him do it ich sah ihn es tun I heard him say that ich hoi te ihn sagen> dass Help me (to) find it Hilf mir dock es finden She taught me to dance sie lehrte mich tanzen I am learning to write Geiman ich leine deutsch schreiben The helper verbs (konnen^ mogen, durfeny wollen^ sollen> mussen^ lassen) together with the last named (sehen* horeny helferi) have a second common peculiarity In their past compound tenses the infinitive form replaces the past participle with the ge- prefix, whenever they are accompanied by the infinitive of another verb, e.g * er hat mcht gewollt he didn't want to ?r hat mcht koren wollen he didn't want to listen.